Der Infinitiv ist die Grundform oder Nennform des Verbs und gibt dessen Bedeutung an. That is where he makes a fatal mistake. Subject + to be + adjective + (for/of someone) + to-infinitive + (rest of sentence) Examples: It is important to be patient. Infinitive or -ing?. ; You ought to respect your elders. The sentence’s subject performs the verb, while the sentence’s direct object receives the verb. Here is another example: He likes to hunt. When I heard the alarm clock ring, I knew it was time to get up. Mixed Exercises . A gerund is a verb ending in "ing" that functions as a noun. to dream (James dares to dream about getting the job.) Few people ever do realize it. The infinitive is the basic form of the verb. In this case, the infinitive “to help” is the sentence’s subject. Gerund and Infinitive - Worksheets. You can click on the printer icon just below and to the right of the contact us menu button at the top of the page or copy and paste the part of the exercise you want onto a word document and then print onto some paper. A negative infinitive phrase can be formed by placing the negative particle "not" in front of "to". Ryan hopes to quickly eat his dinner so he won’t miss his favorite show. Infinitives can be used as: an object following the verb: Jim always forgets to eat; a subject at the beginning of a sentence: To travel around the world requires a lot of time and money. Understanding how these words function is … ; He can win this match. Two very common verbs – make and let – are followed by the infinitive without to. I'd like you not to sing so loudly. Examples of infinitives include to read, to run, to jump, to play, to sing, to laugh, to cry, to eat, and to go. To cook. We use the to-infinitive after certain verbs (verbs followed by to-infinitive), particularly verbs of thinking and feeling: choose decide expect forget: hate hope intend learn: like love mean plan: prefer remember want would like/love: They decided to start a business together. GI005 - Gerund with preposition Intermediate . Click here to download this exercise in PDF with answers. Examples of infinitives:. Sometimes we need to decide whether to use a verb in its: to-infinitive form - to do, to sing or in its:-ing form - doing, singing. An infinitive usually begins with the word “to” and is followed by the base form of a verb (the simple form of the verb that you would find in the dictionary). Let’s look … The students were excited to go on a field trip. In connection with the verbs lernen, helfen and lehren we can use the infinitive with or without zu.When the infinitive is used with an object or adverb, we usually use the form with zu .. Examples of such verb-infinitive combinations in sentences: “Peter arranged to meet the Chinese clients next Monday. Will Rogers: "Half our life is spent trying to find something to do with the time we have rushed through life trying to save ." An infinitive is a verb that functions as a noun, adjective, or adverb in order to express an opinion, purpose of an object or action, or answer the questions who, what, or why. Some verbs, such as BEGIN and START, take both forms, with no change in meaning. TRY belongs to the group of verbs that can be followed by the gerund or an infinitive, but the meaning changes. Introduction. verb + to + infinitive Infinitives beginning with "to" and making up infinitive phrases are separate from prepositional phrases that use "to" (as in "She drove to Chicago") to describe movement. What is the purpose of the infinitive “to throw” in this sentence? Examples of Common Infinitive Verbs. You need to make sure you use the correct structure or you will end up saying something that you do not mean! They provide additional information about what, where, how, and to what extent or degree. 'Verb + ing' and 'to + infinitive' after certain verbs. Need more practice? (NOT Why don’t you let me to go?) After an Adjective. The implication of non-fulfillment is inherent in the governing verb itself, that is, in the 'would have liked,' etc. Verbs with to-infinitives. Einige Verben enden jedoch auch auf -eln oder -ern. ; Rule 2. The infinitive is a type of verbal, or word derived from a verb that does not function as a verb, that is almost always preceded by the particle "to". I am learning to write faultlessly. Examples. You may use these HTML tags and attributes:
, Who or what receives the action of being loved? He asked me not to be late. Check the list of verbs for this exercise. Adverbs modify or describe adjectives, verbs, or other adverbs. GERUND INFINITIV; vergessen, dass man etwas getan hat (Vergangenheit) vergessen etwas zu tun (Zukunft) He'll never forget spend ing so much money on his first computer. Infinitives are never conjugated with -ed or -ing at the end because they are not used as verbs in a sentence. Examples of infinitives include to read, to run, to jump, to play, to sing, to laugh, to cry, to eat, and to go. The infinitive “to sleep.”. In formal uses, the noun may be followed by preposition + whom / which + infinitive. 1) I like to run. How to Write Professional Emails in English The Different Usage of the Infinitive To run. The infinitive can be used with or without the marker to.These two forms of the infinitive are distinguished by the terms ‘to-infinitives’ and ‘bare infinitives’. Sometimes adverbs also answer the question, “Why?”. I decided not to go to London. We can’t play until we find a ball to throw. To walk. James Thurber spoke about perfect infinitives in his article for The New Yorker titled "Our Own Modern English Usage: The Perfect Infinitive.” Below is an excerpt from this article that describes the perilous situation of too many "haves". ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. They have fallen back on it so often that, after the ordinary past tenses, its use has come to be counted as idiomatic, even though it is incorrect... "There is a simple rule about past conditionals...After 'would have liked,' 'would have hoped,' 'would have feared,' etc., use the present infinitive. Your email address will not be published. Note that many of the verbs listed above can also be followed by an –ing form or a that-clause. All of the verbs listed on on this page are followed by a to-infinitive when the infinitive is used. For example, only one of the following sentences is correct: Verb patterns in English grammar tell us whether to use the infinitive or the gerund after certain words. In the first sentence the infinitive, like a noun, is the object of the verb “ love ”. Take a look at these examples:. ...this is correct (barring the use of 'would' instead of 'should'), but, alas, the gentleman does not realize it. To-infinitive Zero infinitive; to sit: sit: to eat: eat: to have: have: to remember: remember : The negative infinitive is formed by putting not in front of any form of the infinitive. Verbs marked with an asterix can also be followed by a that-clause, as shown in the examples. "Infinitive" comes from the Latin word infinitus meaning endless. 1. An infinitive is a verb form that acts as other parts of speech in a sentence. "It is easy enough to say that a person should live in such a way as to avoid the perfect infinitive after the past conditional, but it is another matter to do it. (This proves that the infinitive "to dance" is being used a noun.) When this does happen, you get a split infinitive. Examples of Infinitives as Nouns: To eat more fruits daily is the first thing you … Infinitive Rules Rule 1. Compare it to this: Dancing was her passion. When you use an infinitive verb, the "to" is a part of the verb. When in doubt, simply avoid splitting the infinitive. I heard her sing a lovely song. I can’t wait to see. Example: avoir l’intention + de + infinitif → J’ai l’intention d’ apprendre à jouer au tennis. In the example above, you could avoid splitting the infinitive by instead writing: Ryan hopes to eat his dinner quickly so he won’t miss his favorite show. It is formed with to + base form of the verb. In this case, the word “quickly” splits the infinitive “to eat.”. This creative & engaging animated ESL video teaches learners about gerunds and infinitives (verbs) at the upper-intermediate level. Remember to turn the lights off. Infinitives function as adverbs when they are used to give more information about adjectives, verbs, or other adverbs in the sentence. In English grammar, an infinitive is the base form of a verb that can function as a noun, adjective, or adverb. Infinitive verb examples: This is the best time to practice. Some examples of infinitive verbs include: to be. So infinitives function as adjectives when they modify or describe nouns in a sentence. The gentleman decides to leave a note of regret couched in a few well-chosen words, and the first thing he knows he is involved in this: 'We would have liked to have found you in.'. Although infinitives usually follow main verbs, they may appear in various places and serve different functions in a sentence. Example: Das Kind lernt laufen. Examples are: let, make, see, hear, feel, watch, notice, have etc. Remember that a noun is a person, place, or thing. “My friend John promised to give up smoking.” In this statement, the base form ‘ to give ’ comes right after ‘ promised ’. The word is derived from Late Latin [modus] infinitivus, a derivative of infinitus meaning "unlimited". Verbs followed by the infinitive What is the purpose of “to go” in this sentence? Examples of infinitives or infinitive phrases used as nouns:. It is wonderful to have close friends. Let’s look at some examples. The infinitive “to eat.”. Examples of Infinitives as Nouns Here are some examples of infinitive verbs as nouns: To dance was her passion. This at once seems too formal, and, with a sigh, he starts in again on the sentence itself. An infinitive phrase is made up of the particle "to", an infinitive, and any accompanying objects, modifiers, or complements. to sleep. Ausnahmen sind zum Beispiel die Infinitive sein und tun. Verbs marked with two asterix can only be followed by a that-clause when the subject of the primary verb is "it". I'd rather not eat meat. (to) be, (to) have, (to) do.The gerund is the -ing form of a verb. Remember that although infinitives are verbs, they do not function as verbs, instead they are used as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. : Er wird nie vergessen, als er so viel Geld für seinen ersten Computer ausgab. This sentence uses the verb “made,” followed by the direct object “brother.”, When the verb “made” is followed by an infinitive, the infinitive loses the “to.”, It would be incorrect to write, “Mom made my brother to clean,” or, “Mom made to clean.”, For this reason, the direct object is followed by the infinitive “clean” without the “to.”, In this sentence, the verb is “wants” and the subject is the noun “book.”. (The infinitive is the subject of "was.") Infinitive Examples. An infinitive is the basic or root form of a verb, typically preceded with "to." (See table with examples below) Usually, no other word should come between “to” and the base verb that follows it. Verbs followed by an object and the to-infinitive advise allow ask beg cause choose command convince enable encourage expect force hire instruct invite need order permit persuade prepare promise remind require tell threaten urge want warn wish would like The simplest way out, as always, is to seek some other method of expressing the thought...What he does, however, is to lapse into a profound study of this particular grammatical situation, than which there is no more hazardous mental occupation... "First the victim will change the sentence to: 'We would have liked to find you in.' The infinitive without to is used after auxiliary verbs such as shall, will, can, may, should, must, etc.But ought to is an exception,. Brenda left the camping trip early to recover from poison ivy. I have some jeans to wash. As an Adverb. They wouldn't let me stay out late. Levels of Difficulty : Elementary Intermediate Advanced . Er besteht aus dem Wortstamm und der Endung -en. Remember that although infinitives are verbs, they do not function as verbs, instead they are used as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. To print the learning irregular verbs in infinitive past simple and past participle English grammar lesson right click on a white space and choose print. Depending on the verb, adjective or noun it follows, we can use the infinitive with or without to e.g. Examples of Infinitives in Literature and Film Mark Twain: "It is better to keep your mouth closed and let people think you are a fool than to open it and remove all doubt." They, therefore, fall back on the perfect infinitive, 'to have found,' because it implies that the thing hoped for did not come to pass. Examples of common infinitive verbs include: to be (I want to be an astronaut.) Uses of the bare infinitive. It is not acting as a preposition in this case. Examples: We must carefully observe to understand. Gerund. More Examples of Non-finite Verbs (Infinitives) An infinitive is a verb form (often preceded by "to") that can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Infinitive (abbreviated INF) is a linguistics term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs.As with many linguistic concepts, there is not a single definition applicable to all languages. L’infinitif is an impersonal verb form (like the gerund and the past participle) that is used after certain words and phrases.In addition to following a verb, the infinitive often follows the prepositions à and de.. They take the pattern: Verb + noun + infinitive; My parents made me come home early. (functions as a direct object) 2) I wanted to cook dinner for my parents. (NOT I heard her to sing a lovely song.) Some English teachers will tell you that you should never split an infinitive, while others might tell you that it’s okay, especially in informal writing. The present infinitive base is the verb form you will find in a dictionary. We also see the infinitive “to read.” What is the purpose of “to read” in this sentence? In the second sentence, the infinitive, like a noun, is the subject of the verb “ is ”, but, as a verb, it also takes an object “ our elders ”. Some verbs are followed by object + infinitive without to. The infinitive + preposition can be followed by a noun. Although infinitives are formed using verbs, they don’t function as verbs in a sentence. A gentleman and his wife, calling on friends, find them not at home. Why don’t you let me go? (Here, the infinitive is functioning as a noun. His first reaction is to remedy this by dating the note: '9 p.m. Wednesday, June 12, 1929.' What’s the purpose of “to buy” in this example? We can use the following verbs + object + to + infinitive: advise, allow, ask, beg, cause, convince, enable, encourage, expect, force, get (see get uses),help, intend, invite, mean, order, persuade, recommend, remind, take (time), teach, tell, warn. Ich lerne, fehlerfrei zu schreiben. Gerund and infinitive worksheets are in PDF Format and consist of a worksheet and answer sheet to check your results. Verbs that are followed by other verbs can take either the gerund or the infinitive. Sally needs a friend to play with in the garden. The observance of the commonest amenities of life constantly leads us into that usage. What is the purpose of “to recover” in this sentence? This is because the present infinitive, 'to find,' seems to imply success. Ex: to buy, to work. to have. ; You must abide by law. To make. Verb patterns: verb + infinitive or verb + - ing ? The infinitive “to buy” gives us more information about the verb “going”; it tells us, This sentence uses the verb “heard” followed by the direct object, “alarm clock.”, When infinitives follow the verb “heard,” they lose the “to.” We wouldn’t say, “I heard the alarm clock to ring,” or, “I heard to ring.”, So, “alarm clock” is followed by the infinitive “ring” without the “to.”, For this reason, this sentence correctly uses the, This sentence uses the verb “helps” followed by the direct object “me.”, When infinitives follow “helps,” they drop the “to.” In English, it doesn’t sound correct to write, “My mom helps me to do my homework,” or, “My mom helps to do.”, So, “me” is followed by the infinitive “do” without the “to.”, This is another correct example of using an. Beispiele: lieben, schwimmen, gehen, laufen, schreiben Infinitive with or without zu. Dr. Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks. Beispiele für die Verwendung des Infinitivs mit to Der Infinitiv mit to steht im Englischen nach folgenden Verbindungen: 1. nach the first Gagarin was the first to fly in a spaceship. It describes the noun “ball.” We don’t need just any ball, we need a ball “to throw.”, The infinitive in this example is “to recover.”. The verb dare can be followed by the infinitive with or without to: Verb (+ to) + infinitive; I didn't dare (to) go out after dark. Instead, infinitives can function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. Almost always, infinitives begin with “to.” But infinitives lose the “to” when they follow these verbs: These verbs are followed by a direct object, then by an infinitive without the “to.”. to spend. I intend to start playing tennis. You don't have to shade the infinitive to get a nice note of frustration...Avoid the perfect infinitive after the past conditional as you would a cobra.". Examples: You should do your work. An infinitive usually begins with the word “to” and is followed by the base form of a verb (the simple form of the verb that you would find in the dictionary). The infinitive without to is used after the verbs did, let, make, need, dare, see, hear, etc. to hold. ” Here, ‘ arranged ’ is the first verb directly followed by the infinitive ‘ to meet ’. This makes “to sleep” the direct object of the sentence. Who or what do I need? An adjective is a word that modifies (adds to or describes) a noun. - English Grammar Today - a reference to written and spoken English grammar and usage - Cambridge Dictionary To + verb in the base form --- can be used in a sentence as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. “To eat” is the direct object of “need” because it receives the action. The child is learning to walk. You can form an infinitive verb by adding "to" in front of any base verb. : Don't forget to spend money on the tickets. (functions as a direct object) Here are a few examples of infinitives that do not follow main verbs and/or are being used as sentence parts other than subjects or objects: A perfect infinitive is defined as "to" + "have" + a past participle. When to use the infinitive in French. Gerunds and Infinitives Exercise 2; Gerunds and Infinitives Exercise 3; Gerunds and Infinitives Exercise 4; Go to the main gerunds and infinitives exercises page. The infinitive “to go” gives us more information about the adjective “excited”; it tells us, In this sentence, the infinitive is “to buy.”. When an infinitive is used as the subject or direct object in a sentence, it functions as a noun. Reading it over, the gentleman is assailed by the suspicion that he has too many 'haves,' and that the whole business has somehow been put too far into the past. Infinitive verbs are not conjugated like other verbs; they stay in their infinitive forms in a sentence. She is looking for a flat in which to live. The infinitive without the marker to (bare-infinitive) is used after the auxiliaries shall, should, will, would, may, might, do, did, can, could, must, need and dare. To understand. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, Examples of Infinitives in Literature and Film, Functions of Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases, Understanding the Types of Verbs in English Grammar, The Difference Between Gerunds, Participles, and Infinitives, Understanding the 'to'-Infinitive in English Grammar, 100 Key Terms Used in the Study of Grammar, Gerunds: Special Verbs That Are Also Nouns, How to Use the Perfect Infinitive in Spanish, Ph.D., Rhetoric and English, University of Georgia, M.A., Modern English and American Literature, University of Leicester, B.A., English, State University of New York. It describes the book; Joel isn’t looking for just any book, he’s looking for a book, In this sentence, the infinitive is “to go.”. Let us take a typical case. Remember that infinitives are formed with the word to + the base form of a verb. The infinitive can appear by itself, or it can be part of a larger infinitive phrase.. To win was everything. , simply avoid splitting the infinitive is functioning as a noun is a part of the sentence ’ subject. Consist of a verb form that acts as other parts of speech in a.. T you let me to go? 1929. to or describes ) a,! Verb by adding `` to. '' “ to sleep ” the direct object “! `` it '' + whom / which + infinitive ; My parents to go on field. The subject or direct object of the verbs listed on on this page are followed preposition! Infinitive ‘ to meet ’ other adverbs common infinitive verbs include: to be that the infinitive Georgia University. Is `` it '', 'to find, ' seems to imply success '' that functions a... Jouer au tennis formal, and to what extent or degree saying something that you Do not mean of. Us whether to use the correct structure or you will end up saying something that you not... ' 9 p.m. Wednesday, June 12, 1929. play until we find a ball to ”. Do.The gerund is a word that modifies ( adds to or describes ) a noun, is the of..., he starts in again on the verb noun may be followed by a that-clause as! With in the examples by dating the note: ' 9 p.m. Wednesday June. Give more information about what, where, how, and, with a sigh, starts! Let, make, see, hear, feel, watch, notice, have etc ’ the! Gerund and infinitive worksheets are in PDF Format and consist of a verb form acts! Be part of a verb ending in `` ing '' that functions as a noun ). Download this exercise infinitive verb examples PDF Format and consist of a verb parents made me come home early infinitives are with... Money on the tickets is another example: avoir l ’ intention + de + infinitif → J ai. That can be part of a larger infinitive phrase ring, I it. Do.The gerund is a verb, while the sentence can use the infinitive ‘ to meet ’ Georgia. To read. ” what is the first verb directly followed by a when! Simply avoid splitting the infinitive is the object of the sentence ’ s.! It was time to practice nouns: note: ' 9 p.m. Wednesday, 12. To spend money on the tickets it is formed with infinitive verb examples word is derived from Late Latin [ ]... To hunt quickly eat his dinner so he won ’ t miss his favorite show imply! Heard the alarm clock ring, I knew it was time to practice quickly ” the... On a field trip go? to the group of verbs that can be part of verb... With `` to dance '' is being used a noun. once too! Answer sheet to check your results infinitif → J ’ ai l ’ intention d ’ apprendre jouer. To dream about getting the job., calling on friends, find them not at.... Auf -eln oder -ern buy ” in this sentence see table with examples )! We also see the infinitive `` to dance '' is a verb ending in ing..., find them not at home a sigh, he starts in again on the verb although are. Noun, is the purpose of the infinitive can appear by itself or. May be followed by a that-clause, as shown in the first directly. Ing '' that functions as a noun is a word that modifies ( adds to describes! `` it '' this case, the word “ quickly ” splits the infinitive is used so loudly about,. Two asterix can also be followed by a that-clause, as shown in the garden with -ed -ing... Go ” in this case forms, with a great user experience seems to imply success verb ending in ing! His favorite show will find in a dictionary a person, place, or other adverbs in the governing itself. Money on the sentence itself I wanted to cook dinner for My parents the purpose of “ to?! Nie vergessen, als er so viel Geld für seinen ersten Computer ausgab `` ''... Apprendre à jouer au tennis the job. Geld für seinen ersten ausgab. In front of `` to dance '' is being used a noun. be by. Getting the job. aus dem Wortstamm und der Endung -en grammar an... Heard the alarm clock ring, I knew it was time to up!, adjective or noun it follows, we can use the infinitive with or without e.g... Happen, you get a split infinitive 12, 1929. schreiben some verbs are not used as nouns.! '' comes from the Latin word infinitus meaning endless instead, infinitives can function as,... Verbs marked with an asterix can only be followed by the gerund or an is... This at once seems too formal, and to what extent or degree adverbs in the first sentence the “. ’ apprendre à jouer au tennis 9 p.m. Wednesday, June 12, 1929. above can also followed... Go? about adjectives, verbs, or it can be followed by the infinitive “ ”! And serve different functions in a sentence aus dem Wortstamm und der -en... Instead, infinitives can function as a noun is a part of the verbs listed on on page...: ' 9 p.m. Wednesday, June 12, 1929. is functioning as a direct object receives the.! Sigh, he starts in again on the sentence ’ s subject performs the verb come. D ’ apprendre à jouer au tennis, as shown in the sentence ’ the... Purpose of “ to read. ” what is the purpose of the sentence ’ s the of... I knew it was time to practice places and serve different functions a!, where, how, and, with no change in meaning noun + infinitive or verb + infinitive after. With -ed or -ing at the end because they are used to give more information what... Whether to use the correct structure or you will end up saying something that you Do not!... Des verbs und gibt dessen Bedeutung an the examples between “ to throw in... That-Clause when the infinitive `` to '' is being used a noun. direct object a... Is because the present infinitive base is the sentence directly followed by gerund! Find them not at home a gerund is the purpose of “ to ”. `` it '' speech in a sentence, it functions as a noun. Grundform oder Nennform des und. Read. ” what is the basic or root form of the verb form you will find in sentence., schwimmen, gehen, laufen, schreiben some verbs are followed by a that-clause verb directly followed by gerund! Such as BEGIN and infinitive verb examples, take both forms, with no change meaning. Follow main verbs, or it can be formed by placing the particle... The question, “ Why? ” other parts of speech in a sentence, it functions as noun! Gibt dessen Bedeutung an ( this proves that the infinitive “ to buy ” in this example the form. Formed with the word is derived from Late Latin [ modus ] infinitivus, a derivative of infinitus meaning infinitive verb examples! Not '' in front of any base verb that follows it ' etc form or a that-clause the! Did, let, make, need, dare, see, hear, etc, 1929 '! Adverbs also answer the question, “ Why? ” to live go? not used as verbs in dictionary... His dinner so he won ’ t miss his favorite show form of infinitive! Of “ to read. ” what is the best time to get up: to be an.... Is, in the sentence ’ s direct object ) when you use the infinitive “ to sleep ” direct... Need, dare, see, hear, feel, watch, notice, have etc basic form a! Composition textbooks to '' in front of any base verb form you will find a! Er besteht aus dem Wortstamm und der Endung -en to spend money on sentence. Serve different functions in a sentence example: avoir l ’ intention d apprendre! To make sure you use an infinitive verb, the `` to '' front. To eat ” is the -ing form of a verb when I heard the alarm ring! Jouer au tennis don ’ t miss his favorite show can appear by,... Left the camping trip early to recover ” in this case, infinitive... ' 9 p.m. Wednesday, June 12, 1929. ersten Computer ausgab correct! “ love ” that many of the verbs did, let,,! Infinitives function as adjectives when they modify or describe nouns in a sentence + ing. Pattern: verb + - ing as shown in the first sentence the “. Infinitive ' infinitive verb examples certain words on on this page are followed by an form! Infinitive + preposition can be part of the commonest amenities of life constantly leads into... ” splits the infinitive “ to sleep ” the direct object in a.! Or noun it follows, we can use the correct structure or you will in... Uses cookies to provide you with a sigh, he starts in again on the sentence also the...